• Atomic orbital - a wavefunction that gives information on the location of one electron in an atom.
  • Black Body - ideally emits and absorbs all wavelengths of radiation
  • Boiling point - the temperature at which a substance begins to boil
  • Condensation - phase change from gas to liquid
  • Degenerate - having the same energy
  • Deposition - phase change from gas to solid
  • Electron Affinity - zeroth ionization energy, energy needed to remove an electron from a negatively charged ion.
  • Electron Configuration - A description of the arrangement of electrons in an atom.
  • Endergonic - a process where the change in reaction Gibbs energy is positive
  • Endothermic Process - a process or reaction that removes energy from the surroundings. (eg. the vaporization of water)
  • Entropy - measure of disorder and dispersal of energy
  • Exergonic - a process by which the change in reaction Gibbs energy is negative
  • Exothermic Process - a process or reaction that releases energy into its surroundings.
  • Free Expansion - expansion against no opposing force
  • Freezing - phase change from liquid to solid
  • Fusion (melting) - phase change from sloid to liquid
  • Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle - States that it is impossible to specify the momentum and position of a particle at the same time
  • Internal Energy - The total energy of a system, U.
  • Isobaric - Constant pressure
  • Isothermal - constant temperature
  • Osmosis - the spontaneous passage of a pure solvent through a semipermeable membrane into another solution
  • Path functions - depends on the path between states
  • Pauli Exclusion Principle - states that only two electrons with paired spins can occupy any given orbital.
  • Phase transition - change from one phase (liquid, solid, gas) to another phase
  • Quantum Number - An integer that identifies a system's state.
  • Reference state - the most stable state of an element at a given temperature. (eg. liquid mercury at 298K and 1 bar)
  • Reversibility - a change that can be reversed by an infinitesimal change in a variable.
  • Specific heat capacity - heat capacity/mass
  • Spontaneous - negative change in Gibbs free energy
  • State function - doesn't matter how the state was obtained (path independent), only dependent upon the current state of the system
  • Sublimation - phase change from solid to gas
  • Vaporization - phase change from liquid to gas

MUST KNOW PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY TERMS