Above is the molecular structure of benzene, the benzene ring formula, and the systematic name.
Image: Kikule benzene formulas showing the resonance structures characterized by the shifting locations of the double bonds.
The structure of benzene is based on 120 degree bond angles surrounding each carbon. The C-H bond length is approximately 109pm while each C-C bond is about 139pm.
Benzene is a carcinogen at high concentrations or chronically consumed at low concentrations. Exposure to benzene arises through cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust as it is a component of gasoline and other petroleum products. Industrial uses pose a threat for those with hands on interaction or close contact with solvents, paints, and glues. Inhalation is a common means of accidental exposure due to the low boiling point.
Naming Benzene Rings
Benzene ring nomenclature:-ortho, -meta, -para
Examples: o-dibromobenzene, m-dichlorobenzene, p-iodobenzene. In the image above, substitute the R groups with the respective halogens to understand the benzene ring nomenclature and the structures of these compounds.
Common Aromatic Compounds
TNT - Trinitrotoluene - explosive
Benzoyl Peroxide - acne treatment
Aspirin - Acetylsalicylic acid - pain reliever
Tylenol - Paracetamol - Pain reliever
Styrene - Used in plastics and resins
Methamphetamine - Narcotic
Four of the 20 amino acids: